Hypotonia is a condition where the baby has a low muscle tone. In healthy babies, muscles are not fully relaxed. You may notice some amount of stiffness or tension during muscle movement. This muscle resistance is called muscle tone. However, this is not seen in babies with hypotonia.
Muscle weakness can be associated with hypotonia, but it is not the same. Although hypotonia may occur at any age, newborns and young babies are commonly affected by it. The treatment and outcome of hypotonia may vary depending on the underlying causes.
Read this post to know about signs, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypotonia in babies.
Signs And Symptoms Of Hypotonia In Babies
Hypotonia may not be noticeable in babies younger than six months, although they usually have it since birth. Babies with severe hypotonia (floppy baby syndrome) can be like rag dolls without any muscle strength.
Hypotonic or floppy babies may have delayed motor development, but their intelligence is not affected by this condition. However, the clinical features may vary depending on the underlying causes of hypotonia.
The signs and symptoms of hypotonia in babies may include the following(1).
- Floppy head due to no or less control on neck muscles
- Arms or legs may slip through your hands while holding
- Unable to keep any weight on shoulder or neck muscles
- Arms and legs stay straight with no bending at joints, such as elbows, knees, or hips
Infants usually achieve head control after a few months of life, but they have some muscle strength from birth. Motor developmental milestones such as crawling, sitting up, talking, eating, and walking, are often delayed in babies with hypotonia.
Causes Of Hypotonia
The most common cause of hypotonia is abnormalities in neurological control of muscle tone. Muscles need electrical signals from motor nerves for functioning. Any disruption in the signal generation or conduction may affect the muscle tone. Various inherited conditions and other factors can cause hypotonia.
Neurological disorders affecting the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) may cause central hypotonia (2).
- Cerebral palsy is a neurological condition causing problems with coordination and movement.
- Meningitis is the infection of the outer membrane of the brain.
- Injury of the brain and spinal cord.
- Intracranial bleeding, which is bleeding inside the cranium.
- Encephalitis is an infection of the brain.
Neurological conditions affecting the peripheral nervous system (outside brain and spinal cord) may result in peripheral hypotonia (2).
- Congenital myasthenia gravis is a condition that causes increased fatigue and weakness.
- Muscular dystrophy may include a group of genetic conditions causing muscle weakness and disability.
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a degenerative disease damaging the myelin that covers the nervous tissue. This may result in muscle weakness and other neurological issues.
- Spinal muscular atrophy causes muscle weakness and gradual loss of movement.
Non-neurological conditions may also lead to hypotonia in some cases (2).
- Down’s syndrome is a chromosomal anomaly causing physical and mental developmental delays.
- Tay-Sachs disease is caused by mutation of genes on chromosomes producing specific proteins resulting in nervous system damage.
- Prader-Willi syndrome caused by loss of function of some genes may also result in muscle weakness.
- Connective tissue disorders, such as Marfansyndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, may also result in muscle weakness.
- Autism and autism spectrum disorders may be associated with hypotonia in some babies.
Hypotonia can be a symptom of many diseases in babies. If there are no underlying causes, hypotonia usually improves when the baby grows older. However, some babies may have benign congenital hypotonia (BCH) present at birth without any underlying causes. BCH is non progressive hypotonia, which means it does not worsen with time.
Diagnosis Of Hypotonia
Pediatricians may refer your baby to a specialist if they suspect hypotonia after primary evaluation. Family history, medical history, pregnancy, and delivery-related issues are asked to identify the cause.
The following tests are ordered to identify the cause of hypotonia in babies (3).
- Blood tests and genetic testing help to determine various genetic disorders and other conditions.
- CT scan helps visualize the nervous system damages.
- MRI scan helps to visualize any abnormalities.
- EEG or electroencephalogram records the electrical activity in the brain using electrodes. This may help to identify certain issues, such as seizures.
- Nerve conductions studies use electrodes over the skin to measure electrical signals transmitted from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles.
- EMG or electromyography measures the electrical activity of the muscles.
- Muscle biopsy helps to identify the structural abnormalities of the muscle tissue.
Treatment For Hypotonia In Babies
The choice of treatments may vary depending on the underlying cause. Hypotonia may not be curable if the underlying conditions are not curable. However, hypotonia due to certain causes, such as prematurity and infections, may cure once the baby grows out of these conditions.
Psychotherapists may design a skill training program for your baby according to the requirements and age. The program may include the following therapies and procedures (4).
- Physiotherapy may help to strengthen the muscles and improve coordination and posture.
- Occupational therapy aims to teach day-to-day skills, such as feeding, or any other skills apt for the age. They also identify and provide training for feeding and swallowing They could also make recommendations for feeding support.
- Speech and language therapy help the baby to learn speech and language skills relevant to their age.
- Support equipment, such as a foot or ankle support, and mobility solutions, such as a wheelchair, are recommended depending on the baby’s age and severity of hypotonia.
Hypotonia in babies may improve, stay the same, or worsen over time depending on the underlying causes. Usually, hypotonia due to genetic abnormalities and inherited conditions may persist throughout the lifespan. In non progressive hypotonia (not worsening over time), motor development may improve over time. Although there is no cure for hypotonia, several types of therapies, management techniques, and support equipment could enhance the child’s life quality.